Creature Comparison: Corals and Sponges

Despite being frequently encountered by scientists aboard the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, E/V Nautilus, and other exploration vessels, much is left to learn about corals and sponges. Both are sessile (non-moving) organisms, serve as vital resources for other marine life, and can indicate the health of oceanic ecosystems. Learn more about these fascinating animals below!

Corals

Corals exhibit some plant-like characteristics, but are actually animal relatives of jellyfish and anemones. They are all within the phylum Cnidaria. All corals are classified as either “hard corals” or “soft corals”. Hard corals have a limestone skeleton, and make up the foundation of a coral reef. They can take a rounded, branching, or flat appearance. Soft corals bind together on a softer structure, and can take the shapes of whips, spirals, and trees. Hard corals can grow as much as ten centimeters per year, the same rate of growth as human hair, but most only grow up to three centimeters each year.  Soft corals grow at a rate of two to four centimeters per year. When a coral reef is damaged by a storm, pollution, or by other factors, it may take a significant amount of time before it is able to recover and grow to its former size.

A variety of soft octocorals were found on the East “Wetmore” Seamount near Hawaii at around 2,065 meters deep (6,775 feet). (Image courtesy of the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, 2017 Laulima O Ka Moana.)
At almost 1,800 meters (5,095 feet) deep on Mendelssohn Seamount, scientists came across this dense garden of unusually large pink corals. (Image courtesy of the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, Deep-Sea Symphony: Exploring the Musicians Seamounts.)

All corals are comprised of polyp colonies. Many reef-building corals with access to sunlight also share a symbiotic relationship with a single-celled algae called zooxanthellae. The zooxanthellae live within the polyps and produce organic material, most of which is transferred back to the coral tissue (providing energy to the coral). In return, the waste produced by the coral feeds the zooxanthellae, and the coral’s structure also provides them with shelter. Some corals feed directly via their polyps, using their tentacles to extend out and grab prey (typically microscopic zooplankton) from the water column. To reproduce, groups of corals may simultaneously spawn gametes into the water column; larvae drift and develop until they find a place to settle. Other corals are able to bud off polyps to begin new colonies, or even regrow from a severed branch.

This image highlights the general anatomy of the polyps that make up a single coral. This cross-section of a singular polyp is an example of an organism which feeds by catching microorganisms drifting through the water column around it. (Image courtesy of NOAA’s Coral Reef Conservation Program)
A sea spider was seen climbing on this colony of bamboo coral on the Mendelssohn Seamount at 1,675 meters (5,495 feet). Some of the coral’s polyps are extended into the water column, while others are retracted into their casings. (Image courtesy of the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, Deep-Sea Symphony: Exploring the Musicians Seamounts.)

Sponges

In contrast to corals, sponges are the simplest multicellular animal, and one of the most ancient animals on Earth. They dominate the phylum Porifera, and have existed for over 500 million years. Most sponges typically have a skeleton of limestone, silica, or collagen. These skeletons are made up of small, fiber-like spicules which often aid scientists in identifying species. Unlike most animals, sponges are asymmetrical, and this varied shape optimizes  water flow through passages in their bodies. Some sponges are even stalked, with their bodies elevated above the seafloor. This is more often the case for deep-sea sponges, rather than those in shallower, more turbulent waters.

This concentrated glass sponge community was found at 2,359 meters (7,740 feet) underwater on the “Ridge” Seamount around Johnston Atoll off Hawaii. Some deep-sea corals were present, but at a much lower abundance. (Image courtesy of the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, 2017 Laulima O Ka Moana.)
Spicules and fibers bind together to compose the shape of a sponge, in this case, a glass sponge. Glass sponges are not made of glass itself, but of silica, which is the same material glass is derived from. (Image courtesy of G.P. Schmal)

The small currents created by a sponge’s body allows it to draw in plankton and other organic material from the surrounding waters.  These materials then get caught inside the sponge’s fibrous body and are digested. Sponges can even be carnivorous, using hook-like protrusions to capture prey and secrete enzymes to break down the nutrients. The growth of sponges is  highly dependent on the amount and quality of available nutrients, although they generally grow at a higher rate than corals. To reproduce, some sponges produce larvae which develop within their bodies. When ready to reproduce, the larvae will exit the sponge to drift for a short period before anchoring themselves to the seafloor substrate. Some sponges are even able to release chemicals that inhibit the growth of other sponge cells in their vicinity. Since sponges are sessile organisms, this strategy allows them to prevent space and food competition with other sponges settling in the same area. Similar to coral, severed portions of a sponge may also be able to regrow if they are reattached to the substrate.

Scientists found this bright yellow glass sponge at a depth of 2,479 meters (8,133 feet) on the Sibelius Seamount. (Image courtesy of the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, Deep-Sea Symphony: Exploring the Musicians Seamounts.)
In 2016, 2,133 meters (7,000 feet) down in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument off of Hawaii, the Okeanos Explorer discovered the largest sponge on-record, measuring 2 meters (7 feet) long and 3 meters (12 feet) across. At this size, this new species was estimated to be over 2,300 years old. (Image courtesy of NOAA)

Corals and sponges can each be precious resources for humans. Precious corals are vital to national economies all over the world, as they are harvested for fertilizer, consumption, and even jewelry. While sponges are also utilized for some of the same purposes, some scientists believe their potential can be expanded to aid in the fight against cancer. The composition of the growth-prohibiting chemicals some sponges secrete may lead scientists to a breakthrough in cancer research, since these sponges are able to kill other cells of the same species without harming their own cells. These innovations are just a few reasons to continue investigating these amazing creatures!

Follow the Inner Space Center on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube for more information and exciting discoveries!

Sources:

NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program

NOAA Fisheries Alaska Fisheries Science Center

NOAA United States Department of Commerce

Weekend Discoveries

This weekend the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer visited Shostakovich Seamount, and began its “Water Column Wonderland” week. Check out some of the unique creatures that live beneath the sea with imagery captured by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Deep Discoverer! Continue reading Weekend Discoveries

Ocean Exploration, “Olympic-Style”

Boundary map for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary- yellow dots outline sanctuary waters. Image credit: NOAA Sanctuaries.

From August 18, 2017, to September 3, 2017, the E/V Nautilus will be exploring the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (NMS), located along the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state.  The sanctuary encompasses 3,189 square miles (8,260 km2), an area equivalent to the states of Delaware and Rhode Island combined.  It extends 25 to 50 miles (40 to 80 km) from the shore, including most of the continental shelf, as well as three important submarine canyons: the Nitinat Canyon, the Quinault Canyon and the Juan de Fuca Canyon.  The main objectives of this expedition are to explore and characterize seafloor resources and features associated with these submarine canyons. Quinault and Quileute Canyons have never been explored by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) or autonomous underwater vehicle ( AUV).

Another important expedition objective is to collect information about the ocean’s chemical and physical properties and associated biological communities. The Olympic Coast marks the northern reach of the California Current, which seasonally upwells deep, nutrient-rich waters nearshore.  This process supports the sanctuary’s highly productive ecosystem. Twenty-nine species of marine mammals reside in or migrate through sanctuary waters; the area provides critical nesting habitat for numerous seabird species; and the region is also among the most productive fish-growing habitats in the world.  However, due to ocean acidification (a continued decrease in the global ocean’s pH, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere), the California Current is now also delivering low-pH, and often low-oxygen (hypoxic), waters to the region, which can negatively impact many marine species.  The Olympic Coast NMS is thus considered a “sentinel site” for ocean acidification.  Monitoring and research take place to enhance the understanding of natural and historical resources in the area and how they are changing, as well as provide and early warning capability to detect changes to the ecosystem itself.   

Map showing major ocean currents along the Pacific coast of North America. Note coastal upwelling associated with the California Current, in red. Map credit: NOAA.

In addition to its ecological richness, the Olympic Coast NMS sanctuary is also culturally and historically rich. Over 200 shipwrecks are documented in sanctuary waters!  The Makah, Quileute, and Hoh Tribes, as well as Quinault Nation, all have strong, historical ties to the region.  NOAA sanctuary staff work cooperatively with the tribes to strengthen sanctuary resources and respect the longstanding relationship of coastal Native Americans with the marine environment.

Live video from the Olympic Coast NMS expedition will be broadcast on the Nautilus Live and Inner Space Center websites.  ROV dives should start August 19, 2017!  For more information about this expedition and the Olympic Coast NMS, visit the Nautilus Live expedition webpage, and the Olympic Coast NMS website. And be sure to follow the ISC on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube for more updates and discoveries from the E/V Nautilus and the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer!  Explore with us!

Tuning into the Musician Seamounts

During their 2015 Hohonu Moana expedition, the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer discovered and mapped an unnamed seamount in the Central Pacific Ocean Basin (shown in the image above). The ship and scientists are now returning to this region, “Musician Seamounts”, to conduct additional mapping and remotely operated vehicle (ROV) operations over two consecutive cruises. These efforts will be focused north of the Hawaiian Islands, close to the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM).

From August 8th through August 31st, 2017, the Okeanos Explorer will map the area using multibeam sonar technologies aboard the ship.   Operations will start and end in Honolulu, HI. The additional mapping data will assist in better understanding the geologic history of the seafloor in the remote Pacific Ocean.

During the second cruise, from September 6th through September 30th, 2017, the ROVs Deep Discoverer and Seirios will explore the waters around the Musician Seamounts. By observing the marine habitat and organisms in this area, scientists hope to learn more about life in the Pacific Ocean Basin and the composition of the ocean ecosystem of this region.

The currents and upwelling of nutrients occurring in seamounts creates optimal habitat for high-density coral communities, as shown here in this image taken during a 2015 Okeanos Explorer dive on the Swordfish Seamount, in the Pacific Ocean. (Image courtesy of the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research)

Tune in  LIVE to  this expedition via  footage streaming directly from the ship!  Also be sure to follow the Inner Space Center on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube for more updates and discoveries!

Living Fossil: Tiny mollusc makes big impression on marine biology world

A February 2017 dive by the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer yielded an exciting discovery. Scientists spotted a live monoplacophoran, a rarely observed type of mollusc that is thought to be the closest living relative of the ancestors of modern day bivalves (e.g. clams and mussels) and gastropods (e.g. snails). Continue reading Living Fossil: Tiny mollusc makes big impression on marine biology world

A Rare Opportunity: Observing the life cycle of a young volcano

The NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer has kicked off its 2017 field season so far with amazing dives in the waters off American Samoa, a US territory in the southern Pacific Ocean. In February 2017, the expedition team explored the Vailulu’u Seamount, an underwater volcano located east of the  Samoan Island of Ta’u. This offered scientists a rare and exciting opportunity to observe the geological and ecological characteristics of an active underwater volcano. Continue reading A Rare Opportunity: Observing the life cycle of a young volcano

Discovering the Deep: Exploring Remote Pacific MPAs

On March 25th, the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer wrapped up an exciting cruise to explore the depths of remote Pacific Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). As scientists collected data and made discoveries over the course of the expedition’s 19 dives, the remotely operated vehicles collected amazing images of life in the deep ocean. Continue reading Discovering the Deep: Exploring Remote Pacific MPAs

The Scintillating Sea Life of Pao Pao Seamount

The NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer had an amazing dive March 9, 2017 on Pao Pao Seamount, an underwater mountain in the Tokelau Seamount Chain in the South Pacific. Continue reading The Scintillating Sea Life of Pao Pao Seamount

March 2017 Newsletter

Hello Ocean Explorers:

We are pleased to announce the launch of our Northwest Passage Project’s website, www.northwestpassageproject.org. The Northwest Passage Project (NPP), an innovative science and education initiative that includes an expedition into the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. This National Science Foundation (NSF) funded project will engage intergenerational cohorts of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students in hands-on research exploring the changing Arctic and collecting data.

The NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer has recently started another expedition exploring the waters off of Apia, Samoa, in the western Pacific Ocean. Live-streamed through ISC’s Mission Control, NOAA’s remotely operated vehicle (ROV) will take place throughout the cruise, March 7- March 29. Baseline data will be collected on deep-water ecosystems in and around U.S. marine protected areas in the central and western Pacific. Be sure to follow along and tune into what should be some amazing exploration opportunities.

Registration is now open for the ISC’s Summer 2017 session of Ocean Science Exploration Camp! This year’s camp will take place from June 26th through 30th, 2017, and will focus on geological oceanography. During this week- long day camp, campers will conduct field investigations and apply scientific techniques to sample sediments, survey beaches, and investigate how coastal RI habitats differ and may be changing. Register for camp on the ISC Camps page.


Northwest Passage Project

Courtesy of Vancouver Maritime Museum.

The Inner Space Center (ISC) Associate Director Gail Scowcroft is the Principal Investigator and Project Director for the groundbreaking Northwest Passage Project (NPP), which will explore the dramatically changing Arctic by taking a team of natural and social scientists, students, and a professional film crew into the Canadian Arctic’s Northwest Passage during August 2017. The expedition team, including ISC staff members, will make the five-week journey aboard the Newport-based SSV Oliver Hazard Perry, the first full-rigged sailing ship to sail into the Passage in over a century.

Through exploration at sea and on land, the team will conduct groundbreaking ocean science research in a region that is now experiencing unprecedented environmental change, while actively engaging 35 graduate, undergraduate, and high school students in hands-on research activities. The project’s activities and findings will be shared with diverse audiences through real-time interactions, an ultra-high definition, two-hour documentary to be broadcast by a major television venue, and related community events. The project’s goal is to increase public understanding of the environmental and social consequences due to Arctic climate change; inform decision makers who influence policy development and action; and inspire students to become the next generation of scientists who will help lead efforts to ensure a more sustainable and prosperous future. Links to the live programs from the Arctic will be shared this summer. To learn more about the different science activities planned for the NPP expedition, please go here.

To learn more about the expedition, project partners, and more, please visit the Northwest Passage Project website. For project updates, please be sure to follow the ISC on social media (#NWPproject).


News Update

Image courtesy of National Transportation Safety Board. El Faro stern.

In April 2016, the ISC team worked with the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) to help investigators find the data recorder of the El Faro cargo ship that sunk during Hurricane Joaquin in October 2015. Transcripts from the El Faro‘s voyage data recorder (VDR; similar to an airplane’s black “box”) have been released by the NTSB. The VDR’s recording covers the last hours of the voyage and reveal what happened on the El Faro during its final moments. The ISC was integral in the discovery of the VDR, installing cutting-edge telepresence technologies on the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution’s research vessel (RV), Atlantis. These efforts were praised by federal investigators. 60 Minutes recently released a piece, “Voices of the Lost”, which tells the story of the El Faro’s unfortunate encounter with Hurricane Joaquin, the NTSB’s efforts to locate and decode the VDR, and the what the recordings revealed. The piece is available on the 60 Minutes website.


Ship News

The NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer has been very active as it starts its 2017 exploration season. In conjunction with the 75th anniversary of the attacks on Pearl Harbor, HI, the ship conducted a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dive on two Japanese mini submarines. Highlights of the dive are available on the Okeanos Explorer website. The historic dive was also broadcast live on USA Today and ABC News. Additional images of the dive are available on NOAA’s National Marine Sanctuaries website.

After initial shakedown cruises off Honolulu, HI, the ship then sailed to explore the waters surrounding American Samoa, a U.S. territory covering seven South Pacific islands and atolls. Data and information from this expedition will fill gaps in knowledge about the deep-sea habitats in the region and improve overall understanding of the deep-sea biogeography of the Central Pacific. American Samoa lies at the boundary between major biogeographic provinces, and thus is a key area to understand the biodiversity transitions that occur in the deep Pacific Ocean. It is also an extremely important area for deepwater circulation. During the first part of the American Samoa Expedition, from February 16 – March 2, 2017, many amazing discoveries

American Samoa Expedition, from February 16 – March 2, 2017, many amazing discoveries were made including the siting of a new species of cookie brittle star, an unusual stalked crinoid, and even a “living fossil”. The team discovered a living specimen of monoplacaphora mollusk, a species of snail that scientists had never seen alive.

Monoplacophore. Image courtesy of the NOAA Office of Exploration and Research.

The second leg of this expedition will be a mapping leg to create images of the sea floor, and will take place in April 2017.

The Okeanos Explorer’s has begun its next expedition, “Discovering the Deep: Exploring Remote Pacific Marine Protected Areas”, which will take place from March 7 – 29, 2017. The goal of this expedition is to collect critical baseline information about unknown and poorly known deep-water areas in the Howland and Baker Unit of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument (PRIMNM) and the Phoenix Islands Protected Area (PIPA). Live footage from the ROV dives are streamed through the homepage of the ISC website as well as the NOAA Okeanos Explorer website. To learn about all, planned Okeanos Explorer activities for 2017, please read the ISC’s latest Okeanos article.

The E/V Nautilus will begin their 2017 expedition season this spring off of Southern California. Until then, catch up on all of their highlights on nautiluslive.org.


2017 Ocean Science Exploration Camp- Geological Oceanography

Registration is now open for the ISC’s Summer 2017 session of Ocean Science Exploration Camp. This year’s camp will take place from June 26-30, 2017, at the University of Rhode Island’s Graduate School of Oceanography in Narragansett, RI, and will focus on geological oceanography.

Geological oceanography is the study of the sea floor, including its composition, structures, and history. Geological oceanographers study processes of the ocean to discover how the Earth and oceans were formed and how ongoing processes may change them in the future. They examine the ocean from the deepest depths to the shallow coasts, including beaches, estuaries, and rivers. New underwater mountains, seamounts, vents, and seeps are discovered during geological oceanography research expeditions. These undersea features are home to many kinds of marine life.

For more information about this summer’s Ocean Science Exploration Camp program and registration details, please visit the ISC Camps webpage.


ISC Education Program Spotlight: “The Unknown Ocean”

Image courtesy of the NOAA Office of Exploration and Research.

The ocean covers nearly 71% of the Earth, yet approximately only 10% of the ocean has been explored.

Scientists are continuing to explore the ocean’s biology, geology, chemistry, physics, and history. This program covers the tools and technologies that scientists use to explore the deep ocean, how animals have adapted to survive in extreme ocean environments, and the technology used to investigate the deep sea. Through videos, demonstrations, and conversations with scientists, participants will go on a journey into the unknown ocean.

All ISC education programs align with the U.S. Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), as well as the Ocean Literacy Principles and Fundamental Concepts. ISC education programs can be booked at the ISC, at your site, or virtually (online).

If this program interests you, take advantage of our “monthly spotlight special.” If you book a The Unknown Ocean program in the month of March (actual program does not have to occur in March) you will receive a 15% discount.


Special Programs with the Girl Scouts of Southern New England

The ISC continues to offer ocean science education programs through the Girl Scouts of Southern New England (GSSNE). Programming will continue through June with topics to include hurricane science and forecasting; plankton biology and ecology; and ocean exploration. Individual girls, or whole troops, can register for these programs. Specific dates and registration details are available through GSSNE website.

Upcoming Programs:

The Unknown Ocean with URI Inner Space Center (B)

Date: Sat Apr 22, 10:00 AM – Sat Apr 29, 11:30 AM

Location: University of Rhode Island: Inner Space Center

Hurricanes: Science and Society with URI Inner Space Center

Date: Sat May 06, 10:00 AM – 11:00 AM

Location: GSSNE Office

Walk the Plank (ton) with URI Inner Space Center (J)

Date: Sat Jun 10, 1:00 PM – 2:00 PM

Location: GSSNE Office


Upcoming Public Tours

Explore with us and sign up for an ISC public tour.

Our upcoming public tour dates are:

Tuesday, April 4 @3PM.

Tuesday, May 2 @3PM.

Fee: $5 per participant.

Tour registration will close 24 hours prior to the scheduled date.

Book here (pre-registration is required)

Please contact tours@innerspacecenter.org with any questions. Private ISC tours are also available for school, youth, and public groups as well as other organizations.


Throwback Thursday

This month’s #TBT video takes a look at an uncommon creature found during a NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer ROV dive last month. Scientists were intrigued by this dandelion siphonophore found on the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument (American Samoa). It could be a new species!